In this study, four major types of learning are discussed--constructive, self-regulated, situated, and collaborative--in relation to what students must learn in order to acquire AC in a particular domain. Two questions are addressed: “What are the characteristics of productive learning processes that are required in order to acquire AC?”, and “How can such learning be stimulated and sustained through instruction? An illustrative study is presented that focuses on the design of a learning environment for improving problem-solving competence in primary school students. Concluding comments address the challenges to the implementation of innovative learning environments.
de Corte, E. (2011-2012). Constructive, self-regulated, situated, and collaborative learning: An approach for the acquisition of adaptive competence. Journal of Education, 192(2-3), 33-47. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1054475