Sunday, December 4, 2022

Digital Practices for Reading Study

Researchers "used an academic resilience framework to explore how adolescents from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds overcame adversity and achieved high levels of reading proficiency. Our main aim was to investigate whether digital reading practices and reading engagement (reading motivation and metacognitive strategies) could act as protective factors, individually and collectively, promoting academic resilience among students with low SES. Digital reading was related to reading motivation, and then to better awareness of metacognitive strategies, which in turn was shown to be linked to increased reading achievement for all students.
Jang, E., Seo, Y., & Brutt-Griffler, J. (2022). Building Academic Resilience in Literacy: Digital Reading Practices and Motivational and Cognitive Engagement. Reading Research Quarterly 

Reading Intervention Programs Literature Review

 Noticing that most scholarly efforts to examine the efficacy of reading intervention (RI) programs reviewed quantitative analyses of changes in reading tests, investigators reviewed 20 years of research, specifically examining two key facets of RI: placement and curriculum. What they discovered was a perpetuating cycle of instruction that keeps students trapped in intervention programs.

Learned, J., Frankel, K, & Brooks, M. (2022). Disrupting Secondary Reading Intervention: A Review of Qualitative Research and a Call to Action. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 65(6), 507-517.

Wednesday, November 30, 2022

Social Media Account Privacy Risks Study.

 U.S. schools and districts routinely share student photos and names on public school social media accounts, new research reveals. These photos and names can potentially be used for a variety of harmful purposes including stalking by individuals and data mining by private companies and foreign governments.

Rosenberg, J., et al. (2022). Posts about students on Facebook: A data ethics perspective. Educational Researcher

Thursday, November 17, 2022

Teen Life on Social Media Study


Majorities of teens credit social media with strengthening their friendships and providing support while also noting the emotionally charged side of these platforms. Those who are positive tend to mention connections, information and learning, and entertainment. Negative aspects include pressure to post, online drama, or feeling left out.; these feelings were mentioned more by girls than by boys. 

Anderson, M. et al. (2022). Connection, creativity and drama: Teen life on social media 2022. Pew Research Center. 

Sunday, November 6, 2022

Teacher librarian roles during COVID-19 study

 A recent study examined the nature and depth of school librarians’ involvement, in a position to “lead from the center,” a term used to describe the centrality of school librarians in school spaces, during the COVID-19 pandemic as schools moved from in-person to online contexts.

The research team used a qualitative design based on semi-structured focus groups, allowing researchers to examine participants’ perceptions of their involvement during the pandemic and their perception of the knowledge and skills in their job that could support teachers and students in online teaching and learning. The study found that school librarians’ involvement was not explicitly included in district/school initiatives; however, they voluntarily engaged in informal actions aligned with the CoP framework and worked independently outside district direction to support students and teachers.

The study concludes that schools/districts can and should include school librarians in planning for technology use in teaching and learning and position them as leaders in this work. Additionally, there is evidence that online teaching and learning competencies should be intentionally embedded in preparation programs.

Wake, d., Hu, H., & Shaw, Erin. (2022). School Librarians Leading from the Center in Online Learning Contexts: Informal Communities of Practice Creating Space for Connection and Collaboration. School Library Research.

AI Library Use Report

 This article gives a quick overview of some of areas where AI tools are being used and how they work. It then provides a checklist for assessment. 

Upshall, M. (2022). An AI toolkit for librarians. Library Journal.

Social justice storytelling study

 A recent study pointed out the need for librarians to tell stories about social justice, noting its impact on their listeners.“We both felt our field needs to teach students to be diversity advocates,” McDowell said. “We want our students to recognize injustices on the ground when they are happening so they can advocate for student well-being.”

McDowell, K., & Cooke, N. (2022). Social justice storytelling: A pedagogical imperative. Library Quarterly.

Secondary School Reading Study in England

 A recent study of reading achievement of students in England's secondary schools revealed several factors that predicted reading gains: leadership of reading such as a deputy head of literacy lead, regular assessment to accurately determine students' reading needs, training staff on emerging reading strategies, highly skilled librarians to select and promote appropriate books, adequate funding to support reader needs, and staff awareness of students' reading levels and needs. 

'Now the whole school is reading': Supporting struggling readers in secondary schools. (2022, Oct.). Ofstead.

Wednesday, October 5, 2022

HS to College Readiness and Librarians Study

A statewide, multi-institutional research project explored the role of certified school librarians in providing resources and instruction to students and identifying equity issues among first-year college students’ preparation for college research. High school librarians impact students' college preparedness and ability to cite sources. 

Valenza, J., Berg, C., Bushby, R., Charles, L., Dalal, H., Dalyrmple, J., & Demspey, M. (2022). What’s in a Frame? Perspectives of high school librarians and first-year college students. College & Research Libraries News, 83(9), 393. doi:

Valenza, J., Dalal, H., Mohamad, G., Boyer, B., Berg, C., Charles, L., Bushby, R., Dempsey, M., Dalrymple, EJ., &Dziedzic-Elliott, E. (2022). First years’ information literacy Backpacks: What’s already packed or not packed? Journal of Academic Librarianship 48(2).

Monday, October 3, 2022

 "An Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) study across approximately 30 countries found that teens who said they most often read paper books scored considerably higher on a 2018 reading test taken by 15-year-olds compared to teens who said they rarely or never read books. Even among students of similar socioeconomic backgrounds, those who read books in a paper format scored a whopping 49 points higher on the Program for International Student Assessment, known as PISA. That’s equal to almost 2.5 years of learning. By comparison, students who tended to read books more often on digital devices scored only 15 points higher than students who rarely read  – a difference of less than a year’s worth of learning." (from KQED).

Ikeda, M. and G. Rech (2022), "Does the digital world open up an increasing divide in access to print books?", PISA in Focus, No. 118, OECD Publishing, Paris,

Thursday, September 29, 2022

Civic Education Study

 "A survey fielded to a nationally representative sample of U.S. public school teachers of all subjects in November 2021 was used to assess how civic and citizenship education is being provided in U.S. public schools, what U.S. public school teachers believe to be the most important aims of this education, and whether those aims match the ones identified by teachers several years ago in other countries.

Researchers found that elementary teachers were more likely than secondary (middle and high school) teachers to indicate civic and citizenship education is integrated into all subjects taught at school. Teachers most commonly chose the development of students' critical thinking and their skills in conflict resolution as the most important aims of civics and citizenship education, although teachers' beliefs about top aims depended somewhat on their school grade level and their gender. U.S. teachers did agree with their international peers on many of the top aims of civic and citizenship education, although the comparison was limited by a five-year gap between surveys.

This report is part of the Countering Truth Decay initiative, which is focused on restoring the role of facts, data, and analysis in U.S. political and civil discourse and the policymaking process."

Diliberti, M., & Kaufman, J. (2022). How are U.S. public school teachers approaching civid and citizenship education? Rand.

Sunday, September 25, 2022

Teacher Librarian Expenses during COVID study

A recent study collected exploratory data on perspectives, details, and artifacts related to how school librarians used personal funds to purchase school-related items during the pandemic. The researcher found that "school librarians used their own money to meet student needs, to get what was needed quickly and conveniently, to obtain items for which they were not allowed to spend school money, and to avoid dealing with time-consuming purchasing and reimbursement processes—if reimbursement was even an option. School librarians also spent their own money because library budgets were eliminated, reduced, or frozen during the pandemic. Findings also showed for those school librarians spending their own money, that the most money was by those who worked in rural areas with a higher proportion of students who qualify for free/reduced lunch."

Kammer, J., Atkins, C. & Burress, R. (2022). "The Personal Cost of Small Budgets & Underfunded Libraries: Out-of-Pocket Spending by School Librarians during COVID-19." School Library Research, 25.

Thursday, September 22, 2022

Media Literacy Report

 This report provides a comprehensive overview and a road to follow in seeing that media literacy becomes part of every nation's cultural fabric, and notes the library's role in supporting and advancing media literacy.

Jolls, T. (2022). Building resiliency: Media literacy as a strategic defense strategy for the transatlantic. Center for Media Literacy.

Tuesday, September 20, 2022

National School Librarian Studies

The LibSlide project examines the state of school librarians nationwide. The evidence is discouraging.

 Lance, K. (2022). The school librarian investigation. LRS.

Media Literacy Study

 "new survey finds that most people did not learn to reflect on media messages in school, and few learned to use media literacy skills when considering science news. Only 38% of survey respondents reported learning to analyze media messaging in high school. However, a majority of respondents – 84% – said they supported required media literacy education in schools."

Media Literacy Now and Reboot Foundation. (2022). Science Fictions: Low Science Knowledge and Poor Critical Thinking Are Linked To Conspiracy Beliefs. Reboot Foundation.

Friday, September 16, 2022

School Library Collection Censorship Studies


School Library Journal surveyed 720 school libraries about the impact of the coordinated censorship campaigns across the country on libraries and collection development decisions. The survey found that the efforts are more often attention-getting, high-visibility acts, e.g., yelling at a school board meeting and pushing for unilateral book removal rather than filing official challenges or following the formal process of reconsideration. Most of the challenges came from parents (80 percent), with teachers and administrators next at 14 percent and 11 percent, respectively. But the more insidious aspect of this movement to remove titles from school libraries is the lasting impact it has on collections going forward. 

Yorio, K. (2022, Sept. 8). Censorship attempts will have long-lasting impact on school library collections, SLJ survey shows. School Library Journal.


A new study from PEN also noted the increase in book banning, particularly for books on ethnicities and gender. The study noted the new sources of banning: social media and politicians.

Banned in the USA: Rising School Book Bans Threaten Free Expression and Students’ First Amendment Rights (April 2022). PEN.

Reported in the Los Angeles Times:

Friday, September 2, 2022

Teens and Health Fake News Study

 A new study has found that teenagers have a hard time discerning between fake and true health messages. Only 48% of the participants trusted accurate health messages more than fake ones. Meanwhile, 41% considered fake and true neutral messages equally trustworthy and 11% considered true neutral health messages less trustworthy than fake health messages.

Superlatives, clickbaits, appeals to authority, poor grammar, or boldface: Is editorial style related to the credibility of online health messages?” by Radomír Masaryk et al. Frontiers in Psychology

Sunday, August 21, 2022

Broadband equity

 "A new report and case studies demonstrates the effectiveness of connecting low-income students and households to the internet by extending school, library, and other “anchor institution” networks into the community. ... Building broadband networks “to-and-through” anchor institutions is often the most cost-effective and financially sustainable option to connect students in rural and underserved areas, challenging a narrative that claims this approach is too costly. The case studies show that both large and small school districts, including Council Bluffs (IA) and Fresno (CA), are using a variety of wireless technologies and partnerships to permanently close the homework gap."

Katz, R. (2022). The to and through opportunity: An economic analysis of options to extend affordable broadband to students households through anchor institutionsSchools, Health & Libraries Broadband (SHLB) Coalition.

Saturday, August 6, 2022

The Power of Sports Fiction (and the importance of being impeccable).

 The Power of Sports Fiction (and the importance of being impeccable).

S. Krashen

Language Magazine, 21,12, p. 23


     Fiction can take what seem to be ordinary situations and can show us how important they can be are. This one definitely changed my life for the better. The novel was a baseball story, one of several written by John R. Tunis based on a mythical Brooklyn Dodgers team. The episode I describe and discuss here is from The Keystone Kids (1943). 

     Spike Russell had just been appointed manager of the team, a very unusual promotion because he was young and still a player. Spike took control immediately and confidently, and gave a lecture on impeccability to the entire team (“The Keystone Kids,” pp. 145-146.) First, some background.  As some readers know, when a hitter hits an ordinary ground ball to an infielder, it is highly likely, especially when the players are professional, that the throw will reach the first baseman before the hitter will, and the hitter will be “out.” It is common practice for hitters to not run their fastest on the way to first base when it looks certain that they will not get there before the throw does.

     But new manager Spike Russell made sure this would not happen on the Dodgers while he was manager: “I want everyone on this club to run out everything to first, whether they think they can beat the throw or not… You gotta presume the fielder is going to drop the ball … The other day over in Cinci we dropped an important game… ‘cause a pitcher started toward first base on a hard-hit ground ball with his bat in his hand. The shortstop muffed it and threw wild and he’d been safe if he’d hustled. He didn’t hustle and he was out, and we lost the winning run right there when Klein (the next batter) tripled.”  

     You get no credit when you run as fast as you can and the throw is perfect, but Spike was telling them that you put the entire team at risk when you don’t “hustle,” when you assume that the throw will be on target and the first baseman will catch the ball.

     I discussed this with my then personal physician, Seymour Perl, after our regular appointment. Seymour, also an admirer of John R. Tunis, an avid fan of the real-life Dodgers, and a keen student of baseball, saw the meaning immediately and its implication for his profession as a medical doctor. You have a patient with apparently ordinary symptoms of a common disease, you prescribe medication that is uncontroversial, and expect success. But you have to “hustle” and be prepared for the worst: Make sure you got the diagnosis right, make sure there is nothing in the patient’s background that suggests the possibilities of side-effects, make sure the patient takes the proper dose, etc. It seems an ordinary, easy-to-handle ground ball to the shortstop, but the consequences of any error can be serious. You get no credit when the throw is on time and on target, and no credit when you make the ordinary diagnosis and prescribe the right medication. But the consequences of an error, of not hustling, can be profound.

     I think about Spike’s sermon every day and think about the potential negative consequences of what seem to be small omissions. In other words, the importance of being impeccable. Spike was talking to me. The insight was brought to life by John R. Tunis in a baseball story, in a way that made it clear. 

     In my life, being impeccable means I do the boring tasks – e.g. make sure I check the mail and pay the bills on time, and not rely on my imperfect memory. In my professional life, it means carefully considering every potential supporting and counter argument to my hypotheses. 

     I have not been particularly interested in baseball since I was a teen-ager, but I have read all seven of John R. Tunis’ baseball novels: his first, The Kid from Tompkinsville (Tunis, 1940), was described by one reviewer as “The book of Job for boys” (Shiavone, 2004). I read it first when I was about 12, again in my 20’s, again in my 40’s, and again, more than 30 years later, eager to discuss it with Seymour Perl. 


Schiavone, M., 2004. “The presence of John R. Tunis’ The Kid from Tompkinsville in Malamud’s The Natural and Roth’s American Pastoral.” Aethlon XXI;2, 79-85.

Tunis, J. R. 1940. The Kid from Tompkinsvillle. Harcourt Brace.

Turnis, J.R.  1943.  The Keystone Kids. Harcourt Brace.







Friday, August 5, 2022

The effect of homework, with or without parental help.


            A recent Penn State study reported that “parental help has no impact on student achievement.” Guess what? Other studies have found that homework with or without parental help has no impact on student achievement.  Based on his review of the research, Kohn (2007) concluded that  “… there is absolutely no evidence of any academic benefit from assigning homework in elementary or middle school.  At the high school level, the correlation is weak and tends to disappear when more sophisticated statistical measures are applied.“

            I suggest we try a different path: Decrease school pressure and encourage pleasure reading. In Stanovich and Cunningham (1993), college students who were more familiar with popular literature did better on a variety of tests of subject matter (including science, social studies, technology, and cultural knowledge, suggesting that those who read more, know more. In fact, familiarity with popular literature (including books and magazines but not TV) was a better predictor of performance on subject matter tests than high school grades.  (Of great interest is that those more familiar with popular literature knew more about practical matters, knowledge relevant to everyday living, e.g. how a carburetor works, how many teaspoons are equivalent to a tablespoon.)

            It is also reasonable to hypothesize that knowledge we absorb from reading we select ourselves lasts longer than what we learn from study. This was Plato’s view: “Bodily exercise, when compulsory, does no harm to the body; but knowledge which is acquired under compulsion obtains no hold on the mind” (Plato, The Republic).

            Let’s try providing more access to interesting reading material by investing more in libraries and librarians, and try giving young people more time to read for pleasure by reducing homework.

Kohn, A. 2007. Rethinking Homework.

Stanovich, K. and Cunningham, A.  1993. Where does knowledge come from? Journal of Educational Psychology. 85, 2: 211-229.   



Wednesday, July 27, 2022




This is a response to Bethlam Forsa, “A Love to ‘Read by Three’ Is The Answer to Success.” (

Published in the Newsweek Expert Forum, an “invitation-only network of influential leaders, experts, executives and entrepeneurs.” (This response was not invited.) Forsa cannot be reached by email or telephone. She is the president of Savvas, formerly Pearson K12.


It is widely believed that failure at grade 3 predicts school failure later on in school (Forsa, “A love to read by three,” 7/25/22).

If true, we should study what factors predict success by the end of grade 3.

In Lao, Lee, McQuillan and Krashen (2021), we summarized the results of three studies of ten -year old children on a test of reading comprehension, the PIRLS test, 10 year olds in 45 countries in 2006, in 57 countries in 2011 and in 61 countries in 2016. 

The number of children tested ranged from 3349 to 18,245 and was administered in the national language of the country.


In agreement with Forsa’s recommendation, the best predictor was access to reading material, represented here as the presence of a school library). High levels of poverty meant lower levels of reading competence, as did the amount of reading instruction in school and whether children had developed some reading competence before starting school. 

The clear winner: access to books. There was the most popular recommendation among the public, direct instruction in reading, was not a strong predictor. There is plenty of support for this predictor from other studies, see especially the work of Keith Curry Lance. and S. Krashen (2004).


Krashen, S. 2004. The Power of Reading. Libraries Unlimited.

Lao, C., Lee, S-Y., McQuillan, J., and Krashen, S. 2021. Predicting reading ability among ten-year olds: Poverty (negative), school libraries (positive), instruction (zero), early literacy (zero). Language Magazine 20,10: 20-21.


Tuesday, July 26, 2022

Print resources and reading study

 Teenagers who say they most often read paper books scored higher on reading tests than their peers who rarely or never read, according to a study of students in about 30 countries by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Findings showed that students who read physical books also outpaced students who read digital books. 

OECD. (2022). Does the digital world open up an increasing divide in access to print books? (2022). OECD.

Sunday, July 17, 2022

Urban Library Trauma Study

 A two year long study  difficult working conditions urban library workers experienced pre-pandemic and the increasing demands and disruptions because of the pandemic, resulting in extensive trauma, stress, and burnout for urban library workers. The study included four stages including a comprehensive review of current literature on the topic, a survey of urban library workers, a series of virtual focus groups, and a forum of urban library workers to go over the research and create plans for the future. Trauma  largely started externally but impacted library interaction.  The report also noted secondary trauma experiences and how regular interaction with patrons who are struggling with homelessness, poverty, mental illness, or addiction has a profound affect on library workers who are often not trained or have the resources or support for this work. The report encourages more recognition of how secondary stress leads to burnout and recommends that libraries look to the fields of social work and medicine for concrete solutions to support library workers. The report made the following recommendations:

  1. A National Library Worker Help Line where library workers can call for immediate support during mental health crises and burnout.
  2. A set of standards for healthy library work environments built by a coalition of worker-led library organizations. 
  3. A collection of policies and procedures written from the perspective of trauma-informed leadership. 
  4.  A series of peer-led support groups made up of library workers which allow workers at all levels to offer and receive support from colleagues at other institutions who can empathize and understand the unique challenges associated with library work.
Urban Librarians Unite. (2022). 2022 Urban library trauma study. Author.

Friday, July 1, 2022

1:1 Laptop Impact Study

A study of 53 high school teachers who taught at a school with a one-to-one laptop program found that one-to-one devices are essential to lessen the impact of the digital divide but distribution should be well planned with adequate stakeholder preparation. Leaders need to understand other stakeholders, such as teachers, are in Rogers’s five adopter categories. The findings indicate a positive association between participants’ self-perception levels of technology adoption and their belief that students’ academic performance improved with the use of laptops.  Furthermore, school librarians, assuming the role of an Innovator as defined by Rogers, can establish themselves as invaluable resources that can bridge the gap between administrators’ expectations and teachers’ utilization of technology in the classroom.

Smith, D. et al. (2022). Teacher Perceptions of One-to-One Laptop Implementation: Suggestions for the Role of School Librarians. School Library Research, 25.

Wednesday, June 29, 2022

Reading impact study

For a new study, researchers looked at 26 previous studies and a total of 25,090 students and found that differences in reading comprehension could explain 8.4 percent of the variation seen in college grades. The lead author said: "It's about the same magnitude as high school GPA, and high school GPA is historically regarded as the best predictor of college GPA." 
Clinton-Lisell, V. (2022). Performance on reading comprehension assessments and college achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of College Reading and Learning

Friday, June 17, 2022

Remedial Reading Approaches Study

This study reviewed research on the outcomes of diverse reading programs on the achievement of struggling readers in elementary schools. Sixty-five studies of 51 different programs met rigorous standards. Eighty-three percent were randomized experiments and 17% quasi-experiments. Outcomes were positive for one-to-one tutoring and were positive but not as large for one-to-small group tutoring. There were no differences in outcomes between teachers and teaching assistants as tutors. Whole-class approaches (mostly cooperative learning) and whole-class/whole-school approaches incorporating tutoring for struggling readers obtained outcomes for struggling readers as large as those found for all forms of tutoring, on average, and benefited many more students.

Neitzel, A. J., Lake, C., Pellegrini, M., & Slavin, R. E. (2022). A synthesis of quantitative research on programs for struggling readers in elementary schools. Reading Research Quarterly57(1), 149-179.

Listening Benefit Study

Students who believe their schools are responsive to their needs earn higher grades, according to a study by researchers. The findings, based on data from 12,000 ninth-grade students in Chicago, come as school districts consider ways to better integrate students' feedback.New research has confirmed a link between acting on students’ feedback and their academic success, strengthening arguments for incorporating student voice into school improvement efforts.For students, a belief that schools are responsive to their ideas correlates with a higher grade-point average and better attendance.

Kahne, J., Bowyer, B., Marshall, J., & Hodgin, E. (2022). Is Responsiveness to Student Voice Related to Academic Outcomes? Strengthening the Rationale for Student Voice in School Reform. American Journal of Education128(3), 389-415.

Sunday, June 12, 2022

Libarian-Teacher Co-Instruction Study

A recent three-year study examined how school librarians and classroom teachers co-teach to facilitate learner-centered instruction, including inquiry and maker learning. The research team found that that co-teaching occurred through co-planning prior to and throughout the units. School librarians reported to have used various instructional methods such as scaffolding, modeling, mentoring, and coaching. Classroom teachers reported to have brought differing expertise as the content-area experts. The co-teaching relationships evolved over time, and the findings suggest school librarian-classroom teacher co-teaching significantly facilitates learner-centered instruction in schools. 

Koh, K., Ge, X., & Prytrlls, J. (2022). Librarian-Teacher Co-Teaching and the Role of School Librarians in Facilitating Inquiry and Maker Learning. School Library Research.

Friday, May 27, 2022

Digital Literacy Curriculum and Learning Study

 A recent study found that high school students who received only six 50-minute lessons in digital literacy were twice as likely to spot questionable websites as they were before the instruction took place, using a Stanford-created curriculum. 

Wineburg, S., Breakstone, J., McGrew, S., Smith, M. D., & Ortega, T. (2022). Lateral reading on the open Internet: A district-wide field study in high school government classes. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication.

Research Need on Teachers' Digital Literacy

 This international study pointed out the need for research on the digital literacy competence -- and training -- for teachers.

Tomczyk, Ł., Fedeli, L. (2022). Introduction—On the Need for Research on the Digital Literacy of Current and Future Teachers. In: Tomczyk, Ł., Fedeli, L. (eds) Digital Literacy for Teachers. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. Springer, Singapore.

Digital Literacy Literature Review

 "This research aims at providing an overview of the research feld of digital literacy into learning and education. Using text mining, it reviews 1037 research articles published on the topic between 2000 and 2020. This review reveals that there is a plurality of terms associated with digital literacy. Moreover, our research identifes six key factors that defne the literature, which are information literacy, developing digital literacy, digital learning, ICT, social media, and twenty-frst century digital skills. These factors can be grouped into three main streams, which are 1) digital literacy, 2) digital learning and 3) twenty-frst century digital skills. These three streams are supported by informational and technological foundations. These results provide research avenues and ofer a framework for digital literacy in education."

Audrin, C., Audrin, B. Key factors in digital literacy in learning and education: a systematic literature review using text mining. Educ Inf Technol (2022).

Tuesday, May 3, 2022

Children's Screen Time study

A study surveyed parents in 2020 and 2021 about their children’s use of technology and social media during the pandemic. The study focused on youth younger than 12. Between 2020 and 2021 children used digital devices and social media more, and parents increasingly expressed worry about the amount of time their child was spending on those devices. Parents became more aware of their children's online use, and some changed their monitoring habits: either being more restrictive or more lenient. 

McClain, C. (2022). How parents' views of their kids' screen time, social media use changed during COVID-19.   Pew Research Center.

Thursday, April 21, 2022

Library tech access study

 The American Library Association released a report last week underlining the role of libraries in expanding digital equity throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Libraries have played an increasingly central role in expanding access to emerging technology, as well as in digital literacy programming efforts with local partnership. This role was made even more important during the pandemic, when patrons were forced to adapt to jarring new realities. The report explores the efforts of libraries to understand and combat the digital divide. (from report abstract).

Bryne, A., & Visser, M. (2021). Keeping communities connected: Library broadband services during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2021). American Library Association.

Monday, April 4, 2022

Teen Social Media Use Study

 A cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom has revealed an association between social media use and lower life satisfaction among children and adolescents aged 10-21 years. "Cross-sectional relationship between self-reported estimates of social media use and life satisfaction ratings is most negative in younger adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in this relationship are only present during this time. Longitudinal analyses of 17,409 participants (10–21 years old) suggest distinct developmental windows of sensitivity to social media in adolescence, when higher estimated social media use predicts a decrease in life satisfaction ratings one year later (and vice-versa: lower estimated social media use predicts an increase in life satisfaction ratings). These windows occur at different ages for males (14–15 and 19 years old) and females (11–13 and 19 years old). Decreases in life satisfaction ratings also predicted subsequent increases in estimated social media use, however, these were not associated with age or sex." (Abstract).

Orben, A., Przybylski, A.K., Blakemore, SJ. et al. Windows of developmental sensitivity to social media. Nat Commun 13, 1649 (2022).

Tuesday, March 15, 2022

Lateral Reading Study

 Lateral-reading instruction -- a fact-checking strategy that includes verifying sources and considering author intent -- can help improve students' media literacy, according to a study conducted by a Nebraska school district in partnership with the Stanford University History Education Group. The study has put the district's media literacy instruction, led by school librarians and social studies teachers, in the spotlight.

Wineburg, S. et al. (2022). Lateral reading on the open Internet. SSRN. or

Tuesday, March 8, 2022

Reading studies

 Several recent studies reveal the toll the coronavirus pandemic -- now entering its third year -- is taking on children's reading skills. The declines are affecting students in every demographic, and schools are working to boost literacy with tutoring and other supports, but some say their efforts are hampered by a shortage of trained educators.

Research brief. (2022). Amplify.

Understanding student learning. (2021). i-Ready.

Exmaining the impact of COVID-19 on the identification of at-risk students. (2021). University of Virginia.

Grouping students who struggle with reading. (2021). Reading Rockets.

Friday, February 25, 2022

Social Skills Study

 Students' social skills and emotional maturity have declined at least somewhat during the coronavirus pandemic, according to most educators who responded to a recent survey. Educators say that in some cases they have observed students withdrawing or acting out.

Educators see gaps in kids' emotional growth due to pandemic. (2022). Eduncaton Week Research Center.

Thursday, February 17, 2022

Pandemic and digital divide research


A recent national report exploresthe impact of the pandemic on the digital divide—the gap between those who have access to devices and connectivity, and those who do not—and its impact on learners. It highlighted several areas that have contributed to the divide—such as a lack of access to devices, limited digital skills, and challenges around engaging pupils online. But it also exposed some of the issues that have occurred because of the divide, likes the disproportionate impact on the learning and wellbeing of the most disadvantaged learners.

Addressing the deepening digital divide. (2022), Oxford University Press.

Want a high SAT score? Ditch test prep and read for fun

Los Angeles Times, Feb. 16, 2022.

To the editor:
Letter writer Linda Mele Johnson (LA Times, Feb. 11) points out that “rich kids do better on the SAT than poor kids.” A major reason is that “rich kids” do more pleasure reading, because they have far more access to books at home and school. 

Studies show that reading more for pleasure (including fiction) results in larger vocabularies, better spelling and better writing. In addition, those who read more know more about literature, history, science and even practical matters. Literacy scholar Jeff McQuillan has argued that pleasure reading is the best way to score well on the SAT, and it is far more effective, economical and pleasant than test prep. It also makes a strong contribution to school and life success. Along with Linda Mele Johnson, I am happy to see the demise of the SAT. Let’s focus instead on investing in libraries and making sure all young readers have plenty of access to books. 

Stephen Krashen
Rossier School of Education University of Southern California 

Primary grades literacy study

Intensive support is needed to help roughly one-third of children in kindergarten through third grade who are not reading at grade level, according to a recent study. For instance, there are first-grade students who do not know the alphabet. While the so-called COVID cohort of students in kindergarten, first and second grade are making progress, they haven’t caught up to where students in those grade levels were performing before schools shut down in March 2020. Fourth and fifth graders seem to have recovered.  Learning disruptions such as quarantines and closings significantly impact literacy outcomes, including slow progress. One-to-one tutoring mitigates this issue. Data also shows racial disparities, with Black and Hispanic students in K-2 not making as strong of a comeback as white students and gaps growing larger than they were before the pandemic.

COVID-19 means more students not learning to read. (2021). Amplify.

Monday, January 24, 2022

Teen media use study

New research shows that media of all types -- entertainment, social, creative -- has played an important role in helping kids get through a very tough time. Tweens and teens have been using entertainment media to keep their connections and their creativity alive when their worlds are so disrupted. Moreover, they have been using media to boost their moods, connect with friends, and even learn new things outside of school. The data in this report reinforces why it's so important to point kids toward the very best of media, like the shows, games, apps, and books that engage, inspire, and represent everyone equally. And it also serves as a reminder that when kids turn to media, they need to enter spaces that are safe, healthy, and free of hate speech and misinformation. But the data also shows that no matter how engaging media has been for kids during this time, they're ready for a return to in-person connections and a more "normal" media balance.

Rideout, V., & Robb, M. (2021). The role of media during the pandemic: connection, creativity, and learning for tweens and teens. Common Sense Media

Thursday, January 20, 2022

Multidisciplinary youth services research

Abstract: Scholars working in the area of children and youth services (CYS) have called for researchers and educators to look to disciplines outside of Library and Information Science (LIS) for inspiration in moving this area of the field forward. In this paper, we explore the opportunities provided by incorporating theoretical approaches and concepts from the fields of childhood studies, learning sciences, and educational technology in three separate special topics courses offered at the University of Kentucky. In these courses, we draw on our knowledge and expertise within fields external to LIS in order to encourage our students to think deeply and critically about how they think about, interact with, and provide services for children and youth. While two of the three courses are not solely focused on children and youth, all include content relevant to CYS professionals. In each section, we highlight the ways in which our different disciplinary expertise influences both the material we teach and the ways in which we teach. We then discuss the commonalities amongst our experiences and the potential that incorporating concepts and theories from these and other disciplines has for broadening CYS curricula more generally.

Barriage, S., DeGiacomo, D., & Gtreenhaigh, S. (2022). Thinkig beyond library and information science: Interdisciplinary inspiration for children and youth services curricula. JELIS, 63(1), 1-18.

Tuesday, January 18, 2022

Intellectual freedom issues in school librarianship preparation research

 This study was conducted to examine the preparation of school librarians around intellectual freedom issues. The pilot study was conducted with school librarian students at three universities. A gap analysis was used by the researchers to measure the gap between prior knowledge about intellectual freedom that students believed they possessed upon entering a school library preparation program and the knowledge they believed they possessed when leaving the school library preparation program. A survey was administered that was divided into the three aspects of self-awareness, education, and willingness to take action. The educational gaps are focused on in this article with recommendations to continue to analyze the data in further publications. Additionally, the researchers provide suggestions for improving school librarians’ preparation in the area of intellectual freedom.

Dawkins, A., & Branyon, A. (2022). Prepared to defend? Results of a gap analysis to measure  school librarian students' prior knowledge and learning of intellectual freedom concepts. School Library Research, 46.

Friday, January 14, 2022

School Library Selection Policies Research

Researchers examined policies from 80 school districts across the United States to determine the status of selection policies in school libraries and whether the policies contain components recommended by the “Selection & Reconsideration Policy Toolkit for Public, School, & Academic Libraries” published by the ALA Office for Intellectual Freedom in 2018. The research team also sought to determine the overall effectiveness of policies by discussing the discrepancies between the toolkit and the sample selection policies.&The research team determined that most of the school library selection policies included at least half of the expected key components. However, they state a need for school librarians to advocate for revision of policies to keep them current and provide effective guidance for school librarians as they make selections for their collections.

Dawkins, A., & Eidson, S. (2021). A content analysis of district school library selection policies in the United States. School Library Research, 24.

Wednesday, January 12, 2022

College-Career Readiness Study

 Differences in access to supports in high school contribute to variation in access to postsecondary opportunities. The study's authors compare nationally representative survey response data from the 2020 and 2021 Learn Together Surveys to examine differences in how high school teachers and principals provided supports to students for successful postsecondary transitions before and during the first year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Through their analysis, the authors identify equity gaps in which groups of students reportedly received sufficient supports.

Key Findings

  • Access to supports for postsecondary transitions was unevenly distributed across student groups.
  • High school teachers reported providing fewer students with college and career readiness supports one year into the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • High school principals and teachers desired more staff to help with postsecondary transitions.
Mulhern, C., & Steiner, E. (2022). Changes in college and career readiness supports during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Rand.,%202022%205:50:41%20AM%20PST&utm_campaign=NPA:3004:7584:Jan%2012,%202022%205:50:41%20AM%20PST

Tuesday, January 11, 2022

Reading for Pleasure Benefits Study

 Reading for pleasures is associated with improved outcomes for students, according to data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Program for International Student Assessment. Yet, data shows a decline in the number of those who report reading for pleasure, as well as potential downsides to consuming more information digitally versus in print.Young readers using simple, short texts have not seen a significant drop in comprehension, whether they were reading in print or online, while teenagers and adults, grappling with long-form and more complex texts, did find digital reading more challenging for comprehension and focus.

Kogar, E.Y. (2021). An Investigation of the Mediating Role of Various Variables in the Effect of Both Gender and Economic, Social and Cultural Status on Reading Literacy. International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(1), 376-391. doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2021.329.24

This study is discussed at:Sparks, S. (2022, Jan. 4). How to nurutre lifelong readers in a digital age. Education Week.

See also Baron, N. (2021). How we read now: Strategic choices for print, screen, and audio. Oxford University Press. 

See also Merga, M. K., & Mat Roni, S. (2018). Children’s perceptions of the importance and value of reading. Australian Journal of Education62(2), 135-153.

 Merga, M. K., & Mat Roni, S. (2018). Children’s perceptions of the importance and value of

reading. Australian Journal of Education, 62(2), 135-153.