Sunday, October 28, 2007
The practice of using a social network to establish and enhance relationships based on some common ground—shared interests, related skills, or a common geographic location—is as old as human societies, but social networking has flourished due to the ease of connecting on the Web. This OCLC membership report, Sharing, Privacy, and Trust in Our Networked World, explores this web of social participation and cooperation on the internet and provides insights into the values and social-networking habits of library users.
OCLC. (2007). Sharing, Privacy and Trust in Our Networked World. Dublin, OH: OCLC.
Monday, October 22, 2007
Teens say they're attracted to the printed word because today's literature honestly reflects their lives.
By Erinn Hutkin, The Roanoke Times, October 23, 2007
* A poll of 1,200 12- to 18-year-olds done this year for the American Library Association found that 31 percent visit the public library more than 10 times a year, and 70 percent use their school library more than once a month.
* Of those who regularly use libraries, 78 percent indicated they borrowed books or other materials for personal use; 60 percent said they did so from school libraries.
* According to the Public Library Data Service Statistical Report, nearly 90 percent of public libraries surveyed offer young adult programs, with more than half — 51.9 percent — employing at least one full-time worker dedicated to young adult programs and services. In 1995, just 11 percent of libraries had employees dedicated to youth services.
Despite the Internet, video games and technological pastimes, teens are still reading. In fact, from 1999 to 2005, teen book sales increased 23 percent, said Albert Greco, a Fordham University marketing professor and publishing expert.
With the emergence of cable TV, children are exposed to adult topics at an earlier age. YA novel "themes and the characters are far more mature than Sweet Valley friends," Greco said. "Kids tend to grow up faster, and the publishers saw this and put the product out." "Kids want books that reflect their real lives," he said. "It's OK to write about kids who have problems."
Teens spend $170 billion annually: toward music and movies and books. Most teens spendstime on the Internet but find reading more fulfilling. And while teens have electronic options, technology can bring teens closer to books. For instance, they can order literature online. Authors now create MySpace pages for themselves and their books. Blasingame predicts the connection between the book and the game will change attitudes about reading. "I think the Internet is enhancing reading," he said.
Public Library Association. (2008). Public Library Data Services Statistical Report. Chicago: ALA
U.S. schools have made progress in eliminating junk food, prohibiting tobacco use and increasing physical activity of students, but there still is room for improvement, according to a CDC report. A CDC director says school boards, families and administrators must work together to keep improving child health.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). School health policies and programs study. Atlanta: Author.
Friday, October 19, 2007
Chronic aggressive behavior can't be unlearned, according to a new study of 35,000 Canadian children spanning more than 20 years. "It's surprising that the idea that children and adolescents learn aggression from the media is still relevant," said study leader Richard Tremblay, a University of Montreal professor of pediatrics, psychiatry and psychology. "Clearly youth were violent before television appeared."
Tremblay, R. (2007). he joint development of physical and indirect aggression: Predictors of continuity and change during childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 19 (1), 37-55.
Gamers are getting younger and younger, with a new report from NPD Group showing that first-, second- and third-graders are spending 75% more time playing video games than they did a year ago.
NPD Group. (2007). Amount Of Time Kids Spend Playing Video Games Is On The Rise. Pt. Washington, NY: Author.
States that have set very low definitions of proficiency may be the only ones that meet the NCLB's requirement that all students test proficiently by 2014, some educators say. As more states realize this, some states that have set especially lofty achievement goals, such as California and South Carolina, are lowering their standards, according to a study.
Fordham Institute. (2007). The proficiency illusion. Washington, DC: Author.
Darling-Hammond carried out two multiple regression analyses to determine which factors predict low scores on high-stakes state exams in South Carolina (percent who scored below basic) and Massachusetts. Multiple regression allows researchers to determine the impact of one predictor at a time, with the others held constant, that is, as if all the others had the same value.
In South Carolina, the strongest predictor was poverty. Other significant or near-significant predictors were the percentage of teachers with substandard teaching certificates, the percent of teachers teaching outside of their area, and teacher salary. The percentage of African-American students was not a significant predictor, nor was the student-teacher ratio.
A similar analysis in Massachusetts produced a similar result: The strongest predictor of performance on language arts and math was poverty. The percentage of minority students and percentage of English learners who were tested were not significant predictors. And once again, the teacher factors were important: As in South Carolina, teacher certification and teacher salary were either significant predictors or near-significant. School spending was also a significantly predictor, but student-teacher ratio was not. For math, the only differences were that paraprofessional qualification was a significant predictor and teacher qualification was not.
What this all means is that the reason minority children do worse in school is not because they are minority but because so many live in poverty. Darling-Hammond (2007) also provides data showing this is true, citing data showing that 73% of African-American children and 59% of Hispanic children attend schools in which more than half of the students are eligible for free or reduced-prince lunch. Only 23% of white students do. According to a Cornell University study (Lang, 2005) in 2000, 33% of African-American children and 27% of Hispanic children were living in poverty, compared to only nine percent of white children.
Not mentioned in Darling-Hammond’s analysis, however, is the fact that one aspect of poverty makes a dramatic impact on school performance, one that is relatively easy to deal with: Access to books. Poor children have far less access to books than do children in high-income families and have much less access to book at home, at school, and in their communities (Krashen, 2004). The solution, of course, is improved libraries.
The finding that the percent of English learners was not a predictor of test scores when poverty is considered might be surprising to some, but we found similar results: High SES English learners did about as well as, and in some cases better than, low SES fluent English speakers on a number of tests (Krashen and Brown, 2005). Social class (poverty) is indeed a powerful factor.
Darling-Hammond, L. 2007. The flat earth and education: How America’s commitment to equity will determine our future. Educational Researcher 36 (6): 318-334.
Krashen, S. 2004. The power of reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann and Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.
Krashen, S. and Brown, C.L. 2005. The ameliorating effects of high socioeconomic status: A secondary analysis. Bilingual Research Journal 29(1): 185-196.
Lang, S. 2005. Working mothers, and particularly single mothers with jobs, are helping reduce U.S. child-poverty rate, Cornell study finds. Chronicleonline. http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/Nov05/child.poverty.ssl.html
Wednesday, October 17, 2007
In too many classrooms across the country, sweaty palms and the fears associated with a call to the principal’s office aren’t just student afflictions: Educators, especially those who teach media literacy, are experiencing a collective anxiety about what is legal and what is not when using digital images and recordings in their lessons, according to a new report (PDF file) by the American University Center for Social Media. The educational goals of cultivating critical thinking and communication skills are compromised by unnecessary restrictions and a lack of understanding about copyright law.
American University Center for Social Media. (2007). The cost of copyright confusion for media literacy. Washington, DC: Author.
A new report by the Pew Internet and American Life Project suggests that 32% of teens who go online have been contacted by someone with no connection to them or their friends, and 7% say they have felt scared or uncomfortable as a result of contact by an online stranger. Several behaviors are associated with high levels of online stranger contact, including social networking profile ownership, posting photos online, and using social networking sites to flirt.
Pew Internet and American Life Project. (2007). Teens and online stranger contact. Washington, DC: Author.
Some 66% of U.S. voters say students need more than just reading, writing and arithmetic, and about 88% believe students are ill-equipped in critical-thinking, problem-solving and communication skills, according to poll results released by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. "Voters generally are not happy with the direction our schools are headed with respect to ensuring we have the skills to compete," the report's authors said.
Thursday, October 11, 2007
High-risk teens are about 15% less likely to use drugs when they participate in peer-led substance abuse prevention programs than in a similar educator-led class, according a study by researchers at the University of Southern California. "Generally, our study emphasizes the power of peers," said Thomas Valente, a USC assistant professor of preventive medicine. "We found that social network-tailored prevention curricula can be very successful in achieving long-term behavioral changes in teenagers."
Valente, T. (2007). Peer acceleration: effects of a social network tailored substance abuse prevention program among high-risk adolescents. Addiction,102(11),1804-1815.
Wednesday, October 10, 2007
Poor students who attend private and parochial schools scored about the same as their peers at urban public schools, according to a study released today. This study suggests that parental participation and other family characteristics account for differences in performance among poor students.
Wenglinsky, H. (2007). Are Private High Schools Better Academically Than Public High Schools? Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy. www.cep-dc.org
Sleep-deprived students fare far worse academically and emotionally than students who get adequate sleep. MRI scans show that a lack of sleep inhibits the body's ability to refuel itself. Some districts have tried to encourage students to get more sleep by starting school later in the morning.
Bronson, P. (2007, Oct. 15). Snooze or lose. New York Magazine
A federal report funded by the National Center for Education Statistics says computer-based testing holds promise for measuring higher-order thinking skills that cannot be measured easily via traditional pencil-and-paper exams—a finding that is sure to resonate with advocates of teaching 21st-century skills in classrooms. The report is based on a study of how more than 2,000 8th-grade students from U.S. public schools performed in one of two computer-based testing scenarios administered in 2003: a search scenario and a simulation scenario
Bennett, R. (2007) Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments: A Report From the NAEP Technology-Based Assessment Project. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2007466
Tuesday, October 9, 2007
against the use of rewards. Subjects were third
graders, classified as “average” readers. All children
were asked to read about 250 words of a storybook,
written one year below their reading level, and were
told that the experimenter wanted their opinion of the
book (design similar to McLoyd, 1979). The
experimenter told them a little about the available
books and the students choose what they wanted to
After the reading, the experimenter told the child
that they had some free time and could stay in the
same room for a few minutes. The available activities
were reading more, doing a math game, or a jigsaw
The basic conditions were: children were offered a
reward of a book for doing the activity, a “token”
(e.g. friendship bracelet, Nerf ball, key chain, Pez
dispenser), or no reward. (I am simplifying a bit;
Some children were given a choice of what book or
token, some not. This had no effect on the results. I
present here the results only for groups given a
The investigator observed their behavior for these few
minutes and noted whether the children selected
reading or a token as their first choice, how many
minutes they spent reading (some children who selected
a token at first did some reading later) and how many
words they read.
The results: Children given a reward of a book or no
reward overwhelmingly choose a book as their first
activity (13/15 of the book group, 11/15 of the no
reward group). Only two out of 15 of token-reward
group choose a book.
Those in the book-reward and no reward groups also
spent much more time reading, and read far more words.
An important point is that all the children liked to
read: At the end of the study all children were asked,
"If your best friend asked you what was the best or
most fun thing to do in this room, what would you tell
them?" All participants agreed that reading was the
“most fun” activity in the room.
Using books as a reward did no harm: Apparently,
using books sends the message that reading is a
worthwhile thing to do. But using tokens as rewards
had a profoundly negative effect. These results agree
with those of McLoyd (1979)."
THE EFFECTS OF REWARD PROXIMITY AND CHOICE OF REWARD
ON THE READING MOTIVATION OF THIRD-GRADE STUDENTS.
Barbara Ann Marinak, 2004, dissertation, University of
McLoyd, V. (1979). The effects of extrinsic rewards of
differential value on high and low
intrinsic interest. Child Development, 50, 636-644.
THANKS TO STEPHEN KRASHEN FOR THIS REPORT
Peer Tutoring Gets a Push
Family dynamics, not biology, are behind the IQ gap between firstborns and their younger siblings, according to a study published by two Norwegian scientists. This study has implications for educators because it proposes that firstborns spend more time engaged in peer tutoring with their younger siblings and that these teaching opportunities help solidify and extend the older siblings' own knowledge. Researchers also determined that second-born men with an older sibling who died in childhood had IQ scores that were nearly as high, on average, as those of firstborn children.
Bjerkedal, T., et al. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. Intelligence, 35(5), 503-514.
Monday, October 8, 2007
Study: Preschool teachers benefit from mentorship, data
Knowing more about their students' pre-reading skills helps teachers even if they haven't received formal education training, according to a University of Texas study of 158 preschools in four states. Mentor programs and a handheld computer that provided feedback greatly improved students' learning, regardless of whether a preschool teacher was certified or formally trained.
Sunday, October 7, 2007
THE EFFECTS OF REWARD PROXIMITY AND CHOICE OF REWARD ON THE READING MOTIVATION OF THIRD-GRADE STUDENTS.
Barbara Ann Marinak, 2004, dissertation, University of Maryland
This is a remarkable study that presents evidence against the use of rewards. Subjects were third graders, classified as “average” readers. All children were asked to read about 250 words of a storybook, written one year below their reading level, and were told that the experimenter wanted their opinion of the book (design similar to McLoyd, 1979). The experimenter told them a little about the available books and the students choose what they wanted to read.
After the reading, the experimenter told the child that they had some free time and could stay in the same room for a few minutes. The available activities were reading more, doing a math game, or a jigsaw puzzle.
The basic conditions were: children were offered a reward of a book for doing the activity, a “token” (e.g. friendship bracelet, Nerf ball, key chain, Pez dispenser), or no reward. (I am simplifying a bit; Some children were given a choice of what book or token, some not. This had no effect on the results. I present here the results only for groups given a choice.)
The investigator observed their behavior for these few minutes and noted whether the children selected reading or a token as their first choice, how many minutes they spent reading (some children who selected a token at first did some reading later) and how many words they read.
The results: Children given a reward of a book or no reward overwhelmingly choose a book as their first activity (13/15 of the book group, 11/15 of the no reward group). Only two out of 15 of token-reward group choose a book. Those in the book-reward and no reward groups also spent much more time reading, and read far more words.
An important point is that all the children liked to read: At the end of the study all children were asked, "If your best friend asked you what was the best or most fun thing to do in this room, what would you tell them?" All participants agreed that reading was the “most fun” activity in the room.
Using books as a reward did no harm: Apparently, using books sends the message that reading is a worthwhile thing to do. But using tokens as rewards had a profoundly negative effect. These results agree with those of McLoyd (1979).
McLoyd, V. (1979). The effects of extrinsic rewards of differential value on high and low intrinsic interest. Child Development, 50, 636-644.
Thursday, October 4, 2007
Researchers say California's schools need to rethink how they teach the arts because 89% failed to meet prescribed state standards for arts education, according to a survey of 1123 schools. Those standards were adopted six years ago, but the survey shows solid arts programs are more likely in wealthy districts and that enrollment, along with funding, has dwindled.
Contra Costa Times (3/2)
More than 50% of black graduates in 2005 took high school courses of at least "mid-level" difficulty, catching up for the first time to their white counterparts.The gap was 11 percentage points as recently as 1994.
U. S. Dept. of Education. (2007). National Assessment of Educational Progress. Washington, DC: Author.
California charter schools may be improving at a faster pace than traditional public schools, but they continue to trail regular public schools in academic achievement and ELL programs, according to a new University of Southern California report. The report aimed to gauge "academic momentum" and "school productivity," not just test scores.
Los Angeles Times (5/4)
use both. Many also have broadband connections, digital cameras and
video game systems. Yet the proportion of adults who exploit the
connectivity, the capacity for self expression, and the interactivity of
modern information technology is a modest 8%. Half of adults have a more distant or non-existent relationship to modern information technology. Some of this diffidence is driven by people's concerns about information overload; some is related to people's sense that their gadgets have more capacity than users can master; some is connected to people's sense that things like blogging and creating home-brew videos for YouTube is not for them; and some is
rooted in people's inability to afford or their unwillingness to buy the gear that would bring them into the digital age. The typology categorizes Americans based on the amount of ICTs they possess, how they use them, and their attitudes about the role of ICTs are in their lives.
Ten separate groups emerge in the typology.
The Pew Internet and American Life Project. (2007). A Typology of Information and Communication Technology Users. Washington, DC: Author.
California graduation rates fell significantly in 2006, with an analysis showing that around 50,000 fewer students statewide earned diplomas last year compared to previous years, just as the state began requiring exit exams, according to UCLA researcher John Rogers. State officials have taken issue with those findings, saying Rogers' analysis is based on incomplete data. San Francisco Chronicle (5/8)
- Infants and toddlers watching more TV
According to research from the University of Washington, 40% of three-month old infants and 90% of 2-year-olds are watching TV on a regular basis, and there is a 24-hour network geared toward these youngsters, as well as video series like Baby Einstein providing programming.
- Christakis, D. (2007). Early television exposure and subsequent attention problems in children. Pediatrics, 113(4), 708-713.
- Study: Too much TV leads to attention, learning problems: Teens who watch TV three or more hours daily are at higher risk for attention and learning disorders, new research suggests. Forbes/HealthDay News (5/7)
According to a recent study, a kid's academic success may depend on whether he believes in his own ability to grow smarter.
Carlisle, J., & Zeng, J. (2006, July) Is Reading First an Effective Intervention Over Time for Students At-Risk for Reading Difficulties? Annual Conference of the Society for the Scientific Study of
Those without high school diplomas face increasingly bleak prospects as some college is now necessary for most high-paying jobs, according to publication released today. Despite this, 1.23 million students will not graduate from high school this year, and nationwide, just 70% of ninth-grade students graduate in four years, a figure that is closer to 50% for black and Hispanic males.
Diplomas Count. (2007). Education Week
The number of children with chronic illnesses is nearly four times the rate of childhood disease when their parents were children, according to a new study. Obesity rates have nearly quadrupled in the past three decades, asthma rates have doubled and attention deficit disorder rates have risen, and public health officials should be prepared for a wave of chronically ill young adults, the researchers say.
van der Lee, J., et al. (2007). Definitions and Measurement of Chronic Health Conditions in Childhood: A Systematic Review. JAMA, 297, 2741 - 2751.
NCLB tutoring in reading and math is paying off in some urban schools, according to a new Rand study conducted for the U.S. Department of Education, with tutored students in five of nine large urban districts showing improvement.
Rand Corporation. (2007). School Choice, Supplemental Educational Services, and Student Achievement. Santa Monica, CA: Author. http://www.rand.org/pubs/reprints/RP1265/
The Pew Internet & American Life Project. (2007). Cyberbullying and Online Teens. Washington, DC: Author. http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/216/report_display.asp
The report "A National Consideration of Digital Equity" offered ideas for addressing the digital divide, such as using project-based learning to "explore the intellectual capacity of non-English-speaking students." http://www.iste.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Professional_Development/Programming_at_NECC/Summits1/20078/Digital_Equity_Summit/national-consideration-DE.pdf
When kids play video games on school days, boys spend 30% less time reading and girls spend 34% less time on their homework, compared to kids who did not play video games. Gaming did not cut into time kids spent with family and friends.
Hope M. Cummings, H., & Vandewater, E. (2007). Relation of Adolescent Video Game Play to Time Spent in Other Activities. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 161, 684 - 689.
Much of Learning Gap Blamed on Summer:
Two-thirds of the reading achievement gap between 9th graders of low and high socioeconomic standing in Baltimore public schools can be traced to what they learned—or failed to learn—over their childhood summers. The study points out that various characteristics that depend heavily on reading ability—such as students’ curriculum track in high school, their risk of dropping out, and their probability of pursuing higher education and landing higher-paying jobs—all diverge widely according to socioeconomic levels.
Alexander, K., Entwisle, D., & Oslen, L. (2007). Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap. American Sociological Review, 72(2), 167-180.
Most teenagers and adults 30 and younger are not following the news closely at all, according to a recent report.
Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy. (2007). Young People and News. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
Computer networks are most secure when students are taught about cyberdangers, according to a company's School Safety Index project. Although 95% of districts filter student access, 89% place monitors in view of adults and 81% track Internet activity, just 8% of districts teach students about Internet safety, the survey found.
Davis-Kean, P. (2007). Educating a STEM Workforce: New Strategies for U-M and the State of Michigan. Paper presented at Educating a STEM Workforce Summit, Ann Arbor, May 21. http://www.ns.umich.edu/htdocs/releases/print.php?htdocs/releases/plainstory.php?id=5895&html=
1. Legitimize the significant role culture plays in students' educational experience.
2. Continue to challenge perceptions about the role of technology in education.
3. Encourage others to recognize the critical link between technology, professional development and classroom practice.
4. Create opportunities for students to access technology outside the classroom.
5. Continue to seek funding for technology in spite of challenges.
International Society for Technology in Education. (2007). A National Consideration of Digital Equity. Salem, OR: ISTE.
These are the newest numbers -- with LMT numbers now down to 1210 in CA.
Many states that claim large shares of their students can read and do math proficiently have set less stringent standards than lower-performing states.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). Nation's report card. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pubs/studies/2007482.asp
National Education Association. (2007). Reading at Risk. Washington, DC: National Education Association. http://www.nea.gov/research/ReadingAtRisk.pdf
A global study of online gaming shows that the number of unique visitors to these sites has reached almost 217 million worldwide—a year-on-year growth of 17%. The comScore World Metrix study took into account all sites that provide online or downloadable games, excluding gambling sites. Yahoo! Games was the largest property, attracting 53 million unique visitors, with MSN Games following in second place.
Study: Teens play violent games to deal with stress, anger
A new study suggests that playing violent video games helps young people deal with their anger. The report also found that 94% of kids surveyed had played games in the prior six months, and that M-rated games were more likely to be played in groups.
Olson, C. (2007). Factors Correlated with Violent Video Game Use by Adolescent Boys and Girls
Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(1), 77-83.
A new analysis of a federal survey finds that a long decline in teen sexual activity plateaued starting in 2001. The years between 1991 and 2001 saw significant declines in the percentage of teenagers who reported ever having sex.
Ventura, S. (2007). Recent Trends in Teenage Pregnancy in the United States, 1990-2002. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/teenpreg1990-2002/teenpreg1990-2002.htm
Even when children of immigrants grow up speaking their parents' language, by the time they reach adulthood, their preference is to speak English, according to recent research findings. Thirty-four percent of those individuals surveyed who grew up speaking their parents' native language at home reported still being proficient in the language as adults, according to a University of California at Irvine study of 5,700 young adults.
Rumbaut, R. (2007). The Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS-III). http://cmd.princeton.edu/cils%20iii.shtml
According to a study from the Center on Education Policy, a significant number of school districts nationwide have reduced the amount of classroom time spent on subjects that are subject to testing under No Child Left Behind. The report indicates that schools are focusing more on reading and math at the expense of social studies, science and other subjects.
Center on Education Policy. (2005). From the Capital to the Classroom: Year 3 of the No Child Left Behind Act. http://hub.mspnet.org/exit.cfm/cep_nclby3_21Mar2005.pdf?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Ecep%2Ddc%2Eorg%2Fpubs%2Fnclby3%2Fpress%2Fcep%2Dnclby3%5F21Mar2005%2Epdf
Study: Scores increasing since NCLB implementation
Student scores on state math and reading tests have improved, and the achievement gap between black and white students has narrowed somewhat since 2002, the year NCLB was implemented, but it isn't possible to determine whether NCLB was responsible.
Center on Education Policy. (2007). Answering the Question That Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased Since No Child Left Behind? Washington, DC: Center on Educational Policy. http://www.cep-dc.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=Page.viewPage&pageId=480
Study: NCLB may not be working on the margins
Under NCLB, students in the middle have made the largest gains, while gifted students stagnate and the bottom 20% may even lose ground, according to a new University of Chicago study. Neal, D., & Schanzenbach, D. (2007). Left behind by design. http://www.aei.org/docLib/20070716_NealSchanzenbachPaper.pdf
Tuesday, October 2, 2007
Some 85% of parents talk to their children about Internet behavior, according to a new survey of 2,030 adults. Far fewer, however, discuss how to determine the validity and potential bias of information found online.
eSchool News (10/1)
Broadband connection study:
Nearly half (47%) of all adult Americans now have a high-speed internet connection at home. Among individuals who use the Internet at home, 70% have a high-speed connection while 23% use dialup. The 12% growth rate from 2006 to 2007 represents trails the 40% increase in the 2005 to 2006 timeframe, when many people in the middle-income and older age groups acquired home broadband connections.
Pew Internet & American Life Project. (2007). Broadband
Adoption 2007 report. Washington, DC: Author.
Children may be shaped by their native language earlier than previously understood, and by 18 months ignore sounds irrelevant to the language spoken around them, according to a psychology study from researchers at the University of Pennsylvania. Babies raised in bilingual environments, however, focus less on individual sounds and more on overall words, according to new University of British Columbia and Ottawa research.
Science Daily Magazine (10/2) , Science Daily Magazine (9/30)