This report by the U.S. Government Accountability Office examines (1) patterns in disciplinary actions among public schools, (2) challenges selected school districts reported with student behavior and how they are approaching school discipline, and (3) actions Education and Justice have taken to identify and address disparities or discrimination in school discipline. Findings show that black students, boys, and students with disabilities were disproportionately disciplined (e.g., suspensions and expulsions) in K-12 public schools, according to GAO’s analysis of Department of Education national civil rights data for school year 2013-14, the most recent available. These disparities were widespread and persisted regardless of the type of disciplinary action, level of school poverty, or type of public school attended.
U.S. Government Accountability Office (2018). K-12 education: Discipline disparities for black students, boys, and students with disabilities. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accountability Office. https://www.gao.gov/assets/700/690828.pdf